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   The History of jar Moulding In the past, nobody knew the original name of Kok Mor District. It was only known that some Thais with Mon descendant moved from Thavai Tanoasri in King Naresuan’s reign. They moved in to set up and earned their living by moulding some pots and other utensils with clay. It was found that in the Kok Mor District area there were some broken pots piled up so high that it was called Kok Mor.

          Lum Din is another district in Ratchaburi. There is a special kind of clay which is proper for industry. The clay in this area won the first prize for the clay contest. Accordingly, people dug down and made a deep hole as the name “ Lumdin”. In 1957, The pottery association was established. Since Ratchaburi has been very well-known with on the jars, other provinces like to buy the clay from Ratchaburi. Only Ratchaburi clay cannot make the jars perfect because writing the design on the jars the clay from Nakornsrithamarat known as “Hin – Fun-Mar” is used. Besides, The woods for heating the jars are also special woods from Chombung, another Amphur in Ratchaburi. Such woods are called “Fuen – Ta – Kiab”

    

 

Words and Meanings in Calling jars


       Kok Mor
A name of district in Amphur Maueng, Ratchaburi. It is a strange name related to the history of pottery in Ratchaburi.
       Lum Din
The only district in Ratchaburi. It has a special quality of clay. The outstanding quality of clay has been used more than 10 provinces. Luckily, there has been plenty of clay for the pottery industries.
       Mung – korn (Dragon)
The Chinese people call the design “ Leng” or “Long Mung – korn” It is the successful symbol and happiness. Yuan gives the meaning of Mung – Korn as the dignified god of the sea. Vietnamese believed that Siew Fish will become a Muang – korn after 3 years old. The Vietnamese do not eat this kind of fish. For Thai people, it is believed that Mung – korn is the animal in the Himalayan forest. There have been the Mung – korn sculptor and Mung – korn designs on the church doors in Ratcha – o – rot Temple, Mung – Korn -Kamon- wat Temple and names.
      Hin – fun – mar
is the clay with cicar which is good in mixing with dust color to write different designs as needed.

 


Teniques of Jar Moulding in Ratchaburi

        Actually, Ratchaburi jars have similar moulding techniques as the jars in other provinces. However, there are some differences on coating and writing the Mung – korn design including in the moulding steps. There are the steps of clay preparation, forming the jar, writing design, coating and heating the jar. The clay used for moulding the jars must be soaked for a few days in the clay pond so that the clay will be soft and sticky. After that, fine sand will be added in the ratio of 2 :1 in the threshing machine. When the mixture of clay and sand is ready, the jar maker will use a cutting iron to cut the clay for making each jar.


   Clay Preparation    
Steps of Clay Preparation
 
   
   
 
 

 
Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003

   Forming the Jar Shape    
        In making a jar, there must be 3 persons and the steps are the bottom, the middle and the top after that the jar will be transferred to the beating section.
         Step 1 : To form the base of the jar called (Pan – kha) and leave it dry.
         Step 2 : To form the middle of the jar called (Jor – pan)
         Step 3 : To form the mouth of the jar called (Ton – Oang)
       After finishing the jar, the cloth will be used to smooth the mouth of the jar. Then, the clay jar will be left to dry.
   
 
Forming the top of the jar (Ton – Oang)
Forming the middle of the jar (Jor – Pan)
 
 
 
 
Forming the bottom of the Jar (Pan-kha)
Forming the mouth of the jar
 

 
Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003

       
  Beating the jar    
 

  When the jar makers finish three parts and forming the jars. Then, the jar makers will beat the jars to form good shapes of the jars with two kinds of equipment called Huay – lob and beating bats to beat the outside of the jars.

 
 
 
 
 
Beating the jars
 
 

 
Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003

 
     
 
     
 
 
Writing the design on the jar
         
Writing the design on the jar is not the same as writing on the paper, when talking about writing the design means using the special white clay mixture called Din – tid – dok. The mixture will be put on three parts, the top, the middle and the bottom. Each part will be put different designs.
   
 

The design writer uses the tan clay and white clay mixing together. Then, the jar designer uses his hand to make the designs.

Drawing the plain design

 
   
 

Special Drawing Designs

Drawing Design with Printing form

 
     
  The Top of the jar Normally, the flower designs or branch designs are used at the top of the jar because they can be done quickly and beautifully. The plastic will be used to control the designs. After writing the design along the plastic, the clay for sticking the flowers will be attached as the wanted designs.  
     
 

The middle of the jar In this part, the Mung-Korn design will be put in the middle of the jar. Putting the Mung-Korn is the most important part because it is the attractive part.

 
     
  The bottom of the jar The design for the bottom of the jar is the same as the top of the jar and the design will be simple.  
 



 
 
Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003

  Jar Coating
         
After writing the designs on the jars, then will be brought for coating.
For coating, the ash mixing with mud water will be coated all over the jar both inside and outside. The coating mixture will make the colors turn out clearly. At the same time, the coating mixture can fill up some leaking and some little holes on the jar.
 

 
 
Jar Heating
   

Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003
     
     
 

     The last step in moulding jars in the jar heating or burning in the special big tunnel stove with bricks and big doors for putting the jars in. There are some holes on the top of the brick stove so that the fire woods can be put in. Such holes can be compared to eyes. The number of eyes depends on the number of eyes depends on the size of the stove. One end of the stove is used as the beginning of the stove. Another side is used as the tunnel for the smoke to get out. The jar burning will take about 2 days. On the third day, the fire woods are not added in. The five will be burnt down about 10 to 12 hours. The door will be opened. Then, the ready made jars will be screened. Only the qualified jars will be delivered for sale.

         It can be said that Ratchaburi jars are sold to different provinces all over Thailand. The pottery factories are wellknown especially the Mung-Korn jars. Mostly, the jar factories owners are Chinese who has good background about jar moulding with 4 steps : forming, writing designs, coating and heating the jars.

 

Image Source : ADVANCED THAILAND GEOGRAPHIC January 2003
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